Use wood and branches that have been prepared by machinery such as a chipper or shredder as soil covering. It will keep the soil protected in many ways – see here for more information. Different plants, shrubs or trees will create a different end materiel, some will be mostly wood (bramble/hazel) ranging through to leafy and green (elder/conifer). Additionally, properties in the cells of wood will help prevent weed seeds from germinating (see: lignin – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lignin). When it is very woody, mix it in with some green material. A mature erbal border will also be a good source of material, after they finish flowering.
A Garden Shredder
A Row of Broad Beans on Left and Potatoes on Right, Reggy for a Covering
Tips for removing roots from the soil,
Turn over soil, to expose roots. Roots like bindweed, dandelion, grass etc are removed. Once a garden is becoming mature and having regular toppings of shredded / chopped branches / twigs / herbal flower heads etc, this type of thing will be much less of a problem.
The roots can be dealt with in various manners, however, they should not be put into compost, as they will likely carry on growing;
One way to dispose of them is to feed them to animals for food:
Another way, is to leave them to dry out in a dry place, like a pathway for example:
And also, they can be burnt:
Next will be to plan and mark out rows if not done and then sow crops throughout the season. See;
Runner Beans (also known as climbing beans or multiflora beans, latin – Phaseolus coccineus) are bean plants which grow by ‘climbing’. They use support to climb up or will creep along the ground and other plants or anything they can use as support.
Beans Growing up Bamboo support
As well as physical frames and supports that can be constructed out of materials like wood, metal plastic etc, they can also be grown up corn plants and sunflowers (also trees and other tall, strong plants). check regularly to make sure the corn is not being strangled anywhere by the plants, as they wrap around.If there appears to be any parts where the plants are wrapped to tightly, gently un-tangle them and re-route them.
They are one of the latest seeds to be sown (in UK they are nearly always sown in May, if the weather is fairly dry and warm at the end of April then it may be worth sowing then). The seeds are prone to rotting in the ground if it is damp, which is why direct soil sowing in May is advisable.
When sowing the seeds, sow them closer than any recommended spacing’s, so that any seed failures / losses will allow there to be other seedlings nearby.
When the flowers have emerged, they can be lightly sprayed with a hose or something similar to help the flowers set. Rain will also encourage the flowers to set.
The roots of these plants will establish a relationship with bacteria within the soil which will restore nitrogen from the air, and fix it into the surrounding soil. See – Field Beans, Nitrogen (የናይትሮጅን – Yenatirojen), Legumes, Nodules and Bacteria. This nitrogen can be utilized next season by a suitable crop, like qanneh besem, corn, potatoes etc.
A pre-crop of mustard is suitable for runner beans, and then mustard afterwards, if the weather allows for it to be sown.
Runner beans enjoy growing with radishes and kohlrabi.
Plants sown in pots, to be planted out, can be sown much earlier, maybe as early as March if protected. We nearly always sow the seeds directly into the ground, and then have some in pots as backups and gap fillers, because when sown directly into the soil, there can sometimes be gaps.
As they grow, individual plants may require guidance, by gently wrapping them around their support. Also plants can become tangled if they slip off their support, they will tangle with each other. Gently un-tangle them and re-train them to their support.
Towards the end of the season, after various harvests and pickings, some pods can be left on the plants to mature into the autumn. These pods will allow the beans to mature into seeds that will grow next season. This technique of leaving some pods on can also be achieved with most other types of beans, and peas too. If there is enough, they can be used for cooking, or instead of harvesting the beans and eating them when they were green, they can all be left for food. Remember that regular picking is what encourages more flowers.
First the green pods will become more and more rigid as the time passes. Finally they will become brown and crispy, while containing the seeds for next season.
While harvesting, keep checking the pods and beans. Some pods may contain no seeds at all, or very small, undeveloped seeds. And individual seeds may be undeveloped or not proper for use. They can be checked by gently squeezing them, if the seed is soft and squeezy, it is probably underdeveloped. Most of the seeds will be firm, and after a day or 2 of drying, they will be hard if they was not allreaggy rigid when harvested. The seeds of runner beans have a mottled affect of black and pink / orange.
Use finger or thumb to slide the seeds out of the pods into a catchment container
The harvested seeds are dried, and then stored.
Sow parsnips with marigold and dill and/or fennel.
Grow onions as a neighbour, or grow some in the row of parsnips.
Cover the soil beside the row, with live-covering.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
Greetings in the love and faith of Aiyasus Kristos, during this significant time for Solar-Lunar timings.
Although a time of harvest, in going from faith to faith, mustard is continued to be sown.
Especially in climates that will enter winter in the northern hemisphere and later for the southern, mustard is usefull and valuable in this time. When crops are complete, sow mustard in place.
In this example, potatoes and peas were grown this last season. Now the ground has been cleared and within a day and a half, mustard begins to live and thrive, as the climate enters the more dormant season’s.
The ground is cleared;
Now the mustard seeds are broadcast onto the soil;
Praise Abba, In 24 hours, many of the mustard seeds have allreaggy begun to sprout;
Now the soil will remain sound, for next spring. If the weather stays mild and the mustard gets above hand height, it shall be re-sown.
H.I.M. Girmawi Qedamawi Haile Selassie 23rd July Earthday 2015
Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,
Ras Tafari Renaissance writes to give perspective to the Ethiopian commemoration of what is known in Ras Tafarian circles as the “EarthStrong” or Birth date of Ras Tafari, H.I.M.self. Prophecies were fulfilled, constellations were aligned, what more can we here at Ras Tafari Renaissance say about the birth date, of His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie (born July 23, 1892; Täfäri Makʷennin wolde-Mikáèl [ተፈሪ መኳንን ወልደ ሚካኤል]).
In Ejersa Goro, in the Harage Province, some 18 miles outside the city of Harar, Ethiopia. he was born to Ras Makʷennin (or pronounced Makonnen) & Yashimabet Ali; even in a Christ-like manner in rural Harar, of the late 1800s . He was the son of Ras Makʷennin, Governor of Harar under…
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“It gives Us great pleasure to be present here to inaugurate the College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, an occasion which marks a great and far-reaching advance in Our programme for the promotion of agricultural education. This institution will serve as a source of inspiration in carrying out the agricultural programme which We have laid down for the future.
In establishing this College for the development of the natural wealth of Our country, agriculture and animal husbandry, on modern and scientific lines, Our main purpose has not been merely to develop and utilize these basic resources to supply the daily needs of Our people, but, in addition, to produce a surplus to be shared with other countries of the world. Ethiopia,
to some degree, has done this in the past. For example, when the world was sorely distressed by lack of food immediately after the Second World War, Our country, although she herself had for five long years been struggling to recover from the terrible damage inflicted upon her during the War, was yet able to perform a significant service in supplying foodstuffs to the countries of the Middle East. And We have been pleased to observe how, since then, Our people have increasingly devoted themselves to improving the agriculture of Our country.
A country and a people that become self-sufficient by the development of agriculture can look forward with confidence to the future.
Agriculture is not only the chief among those fundamental and ancient tasks which have been essential to the survival of mankind, but also ranks first among the prerequisites to industrial and other developments. History affords Us ample evidence that mankind abandoned its nomadic way of life and developed a settled, communal economy only when man became skilled and competent in agricultural techniques. From the beginnings of recorded history, right up to the Middle Ages, and even as late as the beginning of the Industrial Age in which we now live, agriculture has always constituted the fundamental source of wealth for the human race.
Only when a solid agricultural base has been laid for Our country’s commercial and industrial growth can We ensure the attainment of the ultimate goal of Our development programme, namely, a high standard of
living for Our people. Commerce and industry, being concerned in the main with development and distribution, can only develop and profit from existing resources, but cannot actually create things which did not exist before.
Most of the districts of Our Harar Province are populated mainly by nomadic peoples. Now that We are in a position to anticipate an adequate water supply from the rivers and wells in the region, the area will flourish and land will no longer lie fallow in the Province, if only the people of Ogaden, Esa and Adal could be educated in agricultural techniques. All this can be
attained only by means of the wisdom which flows from the fountain of education, and while this College will serve the whole of Our country, its being established in the Province of Harar is the result of careful planning and consideration on Our part.
Even in this nuclear age, in spite of the revolutionary changes in man’s way of life which science has brought about, the problem of further improving and perfecting agricultural methods continues to hold a position of high
priority for the human race. It is hard to believe that a substitute can ever be found for the occupation of agriculture — sacred task graciously conferred upon man by God to serve as the source of his well-being and the basis of his wealth.
Our country, Ethiopia, being blessed with an abundance of natural resources, need not be anxious about her own needs. However, it is Our constant endeavour and Our firm desire, that Our people will produce not only enough to meet their own requirements but that their production will enable them to share and exchange the fruits of their labour with other countries.
If only Ethiopia, with an assured wealth of natural resources, would look at what the barren Sahara Desert has been made to produce by the endeavour of trained scientists, she would realize that science is the source
of wealth. We would, therefore, have Our students and scholars accept as their primary duty the attainment of scientific knowledge through education.
We have placed Our trust in this College to be the chief instrument for the attainment of this high goal, and We are confident that the students who have today received their diplomas from Our hands, as well as those
who follow them in the future, will through the achievements furnish Us with tangible evidence of the fulfilment of this Our purpose and Our desire.
Agriculture and industry are indispensable one to the other. Only close cooperation between these two branches of knowledge can guarantee the fulfilment of Our programme of economic development for Our country.
This College, which holds a prominent place in the plans We have laid down for the prosperity and welfare of Our beloved people and country, can look forward to receiving the same constant support which We have shown in the past.
It is with pleasure that We express on this occasion Our gratitude to Our great friend, the United States of America, for the generous and significant assistance they have given to this institution as part of their great effort
for the development of the spirit of cooperation and understanding among the nations of the world. We would request His Excellency the Ambassador to convey Our thanks to his Government.
If the late Dr. Bennet, who laid the plans for this institution and whose great desire and tireless efforts to achieve the establishment of an Agricultural and Mechanical College in this country are well-known to Us, were with Us today to see the fulfilment of his plans, how happy he would have been! With deep sorrow in Our heart, remembering the words “Man proposes, God disposes”, We pay a tribute to his memory in this hour.
We would like to express Our sincere thanks to the Director of the Point Four Programme in this country, the President and staff of this College, and all of Our officials who have laboured to bring this institution into
It is not enough for the children of Ethiopia to be recipients of education. They should never forget that the responsibility for passing on this knowledge to others and of handing it over to the next generation rests on
His Imperial Majesty, Qedamawi Haile Selassie The Ist, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings, Emperor of Ethiopia, Elect of God.