Sow parsnips with marigold and dill and/or fennel.
Grow onions as a neighbour, or grow some in the row of parsnips.
Cover the soil beside the row, with live-covering.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
Sow parsnips with marigold and dill and/or fennel.
Grow onions as a neighbour, or grow some in the row of parsnips.
Cover the soil beside the row, with live-covering.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
Greetings in the love and faith of Aiyasus Kristos, during this significant time for Solar-Lunar timings.
Although a time of harvest, in going from faith to faith, mustard is continued to be sown.
Especially in climates that will enter winter in the northern hemisphere and later for the southern, mustard is usefull and valuable in this time. When crops are complete, sow mustard in place.
In this example, potatoes and peas were grown this last season. Now the ground has been cleared and within a day and a half, mustard begins to live and thrive, as the climate enters the more dormant season’s.
The ground is cleared;
Now the mustard seeds are broadcast onto the soil;
Praise Abba, In 24 hours, many of the mustard seeds have allreaggy begun to sprout;
Now the soil will remain sound, for next spring. If the weather stays mild and the mustard gets above hand height, it shall be re-sown.
“It gives Us great pleasure to be present here to inaugurate the College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, an occasion which marks a great and far-reaching advance in Our programme for the promotion of agricultural education. This institution will serve as a source of inspiration in carrying out the agricultural programme which We have laid down for the future.
In establishing this College for the development of the natural wealth of Our country, agriculture and animal husbandry, on modern and scientific lines, Our main purpose has not been merely to develop and utilize these basic resources to supply the daily needs of Our people, but, in addition, to produce a surplus to be shared with other countries of the world. Ethiopia,
to some degree, has done this in the past. For example, when the world was sorely distressed by lack of food immediately after the Second World War, Our country, although she herself had for five long years been struggling to recover from the terrible damage inflicted upon her during the War, was yet able to perform a significant service in supplying foodstuffs to the countries of the Middle East. And We have been pleased to observe how, since then, Our people have increasingly devoted themselves to improving the agriculture of Our country.
A country and a people that become self-sufficient by the development of agriculture can look forward with confidence to the future.
Agriculture is not only the chief among those fundamental and ancient tasks which have been essential to the survival of mankind, but also ranks first among the prerequisites to industrial and other developments. History affords Us ample evidence that mankind abandoned its nomadic way of life and developed a settled, communal economy only when man became skilled and competent in agricultural techniques. From the beginnings of recorded history, right up to the Middle Ages, and even as late as the beginning of the Industrial Age in which we now live, agriculture has always constituted the fundamental source of wealth for the human race.
Only when a solid agricultural base has been laid for Our country’s commercial and industrial growth can We ensure the attainment of the ultimate goal of Our development programme, namely, a high standard of
living for Our people. Commerce and industry, being concerned in the main with development and distribution, can only develop and profit from existing resources, but cannot actually create things which did not exist before.
Most of the districts of Our Harar Province are populated mainly by nomadic peoples. Now that We are in a position to anticipate an adequate water supply from the rivers and wells in the region, the area will flourish and land will no longer lie fallow in the Province, if only the people of Ogaden, Esa and Adal could be educated in agricultural techniques. All this can be
attained only by means of the wisdom which flows from the fountain of education, and while this College will serve the whole of Our country, its being established in the Province of Harar is the result of careful planning and consideration on Our part.
Even in this nuclear age, in spite of the revolutionary changes in man’s way of life which science has brought about, the problem of further improving and perfecting agricultural methods continues to hold a position of high
priority for the human race. It is hard to believe that a substitute can ever be found for the occupation of agriculture — sacred task graciously conferred upon man by God to serve as the source of his well-being and the basis of his wealth.
Our country, Ethiopia, being blessed with an abundance of natural resources, need not be anxious about her own needs. However, it is Our constant endeavour and Our firm desire, that Our people will produce not only enough to meet their own requirements but that their production will enable them to share and exchange the fruits of their labour with other countries.
If only Ethiopia, with an assured wealth of natural resources, would look at what the barren Sahara Desert has been made to produce by the endeavour of trained scientists, she would realize that science is the source
of wealth. We would, therefore, have Our students and scholars accept as their primary duty the attainment of scientific knowledge through education.
We have placed Our trust in this College to be the chief instrument for the attainment of this high goal, and We are confident that the students who have today received their diplomas from Our hands, as well as those
who follow them in the future, will through the achievements furnish Us with tangible evidence of the fulfilment of this Our purpose and Our desire.
Agriculture and industry are indispensable one to the other. Only close cooperation between these two branches of knowledge can guarantee the fulfilment of Our programme of economic development for Our country.
This College, which holds a prominent place in the plans We have laid down for the prosperity and welfare of Our beloved people and country, can look forward to receiving the same constant support which We have shown in the past.
It is with pleasure that We express on this occasion Our gratitude to Our great friend, the United States of America, for the generous and significant assistance they have given to this institution as part of their great effort
for the development of the spirit of cooperation and understanding among the nations of the world. We would request His Excellency the Ambassador to convey Our thanks to his Government.
If the late Dr. Bennet, who laid the plans for this institution and whose great desire and tireless efforts to achieve the establishment of an Agricultural and Mechanical College in this country are well-known to Us, were with Us today to see the fulfilment of his plans, how happy he would have been! With deep sorrow in Our heart, remembering the words “Man proposes, God disposes”, We pay a tribute to his memory in this hour.
We would like to express Our sincere thanks to the Director of the Point Four Programme in this country, the President and staff of this College, and all of Our officials who have laboured to bring this institution into
It is not enough for the children of Ethiopia to be recipients of education. They should never forget that the responsibility for passing on this knowledge to others and of handing it over to the next generation rests on
His Imperial Majesty, Qedamawi Haile Selassie The Ist, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings, Emperor of Ethiopia, Elect of God.
If growing in rows, give plants plenty of room. Plants within each row should be about 18 inches apart. Different varieties may be allowed closer plantings or need more than 18 inches. These hungry plants like lots of food, like; nettle, Kannah-Besem, comfrey etc feeds.
Rows are planted 2 meters apart, and if lots of tomatoes are desired, another mixed row can be added. Before they grow in their row [either by direct sowing or planting], pre-plant it with mustard or/and field/broad beans, and fertilize the soil with a liquid feed.
Air moves free and plants stay healthy and breathe well, as the atmosphere stays ‘sweet’ from the space. They can be utilised as protector and defence plants, plant things like kohlrabi, cauliflower + other cabbage family members, auto-flower Kannah-Besem etc which do not grow too big. These plants being protected can be harvested to make room for the tomatoes when they need it.
When planting out tomato plants, dip them in a liquid feed of erbs or other plants, and do not plant them out before hard frost has gone for the season. Straight away water them with a watered down feed [nettle/Kannah Besem, comfrey or other will do as well]. Plant them deep, and make sure the lowest flowers are not above a hand’s breadth above the soil.
Plants which are really tall can be planted at an angle so the flowers are still within a hands breadth of the soil.
They can be tied to support, like a strong stake, for taller, slimmer plants or grown ‘wildly’ for bushy, low plants.
Now the plants are growing, under-sow them with marigold, and / or mustard. Both act as partners and eventually cover.
Keep all leaves of the plants, as these are needed for energy (do not remove unnecessary leaves, however, if leaves cover fruit, then they may be removed).
If growing with support nip off various side shoots from the axils of the leaves. Bushy plants can be attained by nipping off the main tip.
If growing in greenhouses, or blocks, follow the principles as above, for feeding, planting, support, and also space plants appropriately. In greenhouses/glasshouses it is possible to support from above with string etc.
A simple ‘tea’ can be made by using leaves, stems, and flowers of plants. Individual or mixes can be made.
Here is a nettle one for example;
Put water and nettles in a container. Younger nettles are slightly better. With around half water – half nettle.
After around 10 – 20 days, the liquid is proper; More heat and stirring will speed up the process. Liquid feeds usually have an extremely strong smell when breaking down and when disturbed.
Follow this process for all other feeds. Combinations of different plants are fine to make as well.
Another method, instead of mixing the plant material in the water, is; the plant material can be suspended within a sack (hessian, hemp sacks etc), in the water, and then the liquid feed will be reaggy in around the same time.
To make a spray, strain this liquid and pour into a spray bottle.
Types of Feeds
There are lots of different types of feeds to be made. A nettle feed would be ideal for Kannah-Besem while in leaf growth stage. To encourage flower/bud growth a feed of valerian. During flowering, a feed of woodland fern is ideal, marigold could be added too. Like with the garden itself, use knowledge and logic to create different plant feeds. Using a wormwood liquid feed near anything that likes earthworms would cause the earthworms to vacate the area. However wormwood liquid is very good to be sprayed onto currant bushes to cure ‘rust’. (Just having wormwood growing near the currants will help, but remember worms themselves will stay well away).
Blackcurrant Leaves Suffering Rust – A Wormwood Spray Will Cure
A liquid feed of green onion leaves/stalks (or plants of the onion family like leeks, allium etc) is very good for strawberries, and the moulds / fungi that attack them.
Most seedlings and plants can be dipped into liquid feeds before they are planted again, this gives a little boost.
Bigger, mature plants, trees and shrubs can have a good soaking of nettle feed or suitable feed before being planted.
When planting out, pour some in the planting hole. Now plants will be best furnished for a sound and healthy life.
Liquid feeds made of cabbage and similar plants will be nutritious for the garden.
Rhubarb and/or Horse radish liquid feed will prevent club root in cabbages and other plants.
Liquid feeds (preferably nettle mixed with erbs), can be used to heal wounded tree trunks by painting it on. Use water glass to help it stick if needed.
Frost damaged trees can also be treated with the liquid feeds.
Mildew is prevented by using a horsetail spray.
Strawberries enjoy nettle feed.
A mixture of nettle, comfrey and cabbage feed is healthy for strawberries.
General Types of Liquid Feeds;
Medicinal erbs and combinations of them,
Combinations of different plants
Use These Liquid Feeds Carefully;
Use the end of the liquids in compost pile. It will start a new compost pile quickly. Also trees and heavy feeders can have the last of the liquid.
The bits and residues that remain can be put in the compost or again, used to quickly start a new one. It can also be spread on the cover of growing plants.
There are many uses for liquid feeds, use them as an advantage, and experiment.
The soil between vegetable rows is kept covered once seedlings are up and around hand height, first with the early sowing of spinach or light cover, which can protect neighbouring seedlings from pests and sun. The roots of the spinach (see post on spinach) and mustard which are left in the ground, adds a further dimension to the benefits. At the beginning of the growing season, a cover crop can be sown half way between each row, or the space can be covered straight away with live covering, once the seedlings are near hand height. Spinach grown half way between the crop rows, works best for this. Chop it down once the crop seedlings are established. Over the year build the cover with nearly all things green (accept a few mentioned later).
Keeping it topped up with as much variation as possible, ensures that this season’s and especially next season’s crop will be as well furnished as possible. Using erbs (including ones from the border) as part of the cover will greatly benefit the soil and the life within while preventing pests and disease.
Some advantages of cover;
Keeps soil protected from direct sunlight,
Keeps soil protected from rain,
Keeps soil protected from wind,
Acts as a filter for plants,
Reduces the need for watering massively,
Creates a good home for roots, earthworms, and lots of other creatures,
Nutrients are stored, preserved and released properly to plants – roots have an abundant supply and apportion nutrients and water to the receiving plant with ease,
Roots are in a happy environment, nearly always moist but never waterlogged.
Aim to keep soil that does not have seedlings/plants growing in it, covered at all times. Soil which is rooted with roots and shaded by leaves produces proper plants in time. Then these plants will eventually become food for the soil and the live-cycle continues.
The covering provides food for earthworms and all other soil life, while also protecting soil from damage, nutrient leaching, water leaching, capping from the sun etc. Covering is not only the best way to achieve a good soil, but also the best method for preserving good soil. (NOTE: Covering is not usually used until the vegetable seedlings are about hand height, so the covering doesn’t cover the seedlings. [Wind, birds etc move the covering about]).
No straw or peat. Use plenty of medicinal erbs, leaves of harvested vegetables / erbs, wild flowers, flowers which have finished (seeds in flower heads/fruit pods are not a problem), lawn and grass cuttings and hedge clippings are all good. Keep tidy and ordered. A path will quickly be formed, and when the covering is proper and thick, it can even be used as a path in wet, rainy weather.
Chopping the material up helps to keep tidiness and order. Also, woody material can be chopped up if the equipment is available. When chopped into small fine pieces it is ideal for cover and properties within the cells of wood prevent weeds from germinating and growing. Using woody material, that is not shredded, takes a long time to break down and so is un-practical for cover.
Chopping Up Live Cover
Choose a suitable garden area, based on access, soil, wanted size, light conditions, heat conditions, wind protection and water availability.
After choosing a site, List and plan on paper the initial ideas;
-plants that will be grown,
-amount of rows (500 mm apart), rows will be explained further on,
-water source positions etc.
Inspect the soil of the chosen garden spot. Make note of what plants are living in the soil. Check soil structure. If hard/clay/stony, then turn it over, with what is required and appropriate (fork, rotovator, plough etc). For clay add sand etc. For sandy soil add organic matter (leaves, grass cuttings, compost etc). If soil is soft, fine and crumbly then check for stones and remove roots of existing, invasive perennial plants. Soil nutrient content can often be figured out by the plants that are living in the soil. Roots of any annuals (marigold etc) can remain in the soil for soil nutrition.
For the first few years, the soil may need turning over fully, each winter or whenever is suitable, to keep on top of it – each site will be different. After a few years of cultivation, the soil will be able to be managed, a row at a time. For instance; When a row is harvested and it is not going to be sowed again with crops until the next season, then the soil is slightly prodded, and loosely worked. Then it is sown with an appropriate cover-plant like mustard, or it is covered over with live-cycle cover (leaves, grass, shredded twigs, wildflowers etc).
It is normal to take some time for planning, allow for inspiration to happen. Trust that Yahh will finish the process and that He will allow good fruits to be bourne. InI find it best to roll up a good 1, get a pencil, some paper, seeds, then go to the garden and begin planning. It will probably take a lot of erasing and a few times to get the final plan. Include paths, gates, water points and anything else which may be necessary in the plan.
Use the sections’ on plant neighbours and incompatibilities, to help make the plan.
Sow lots of erb seeds and/or acquire erb plants for the border of the garden. Starting the erbal seedlins early will allow some to be able to be planted around the border of the garden to create a protecting, erbal border. The border can also contain other annuals and perennials too.
Fence the site off, mark out paths, mark out vegetable rows and gates.
Plant erbs round the border – it does not matter if the whole border is not filled or even empty – over time it can be added to with more erbs until filled.
Planting Chives in Erbal Border
Here is a erbal border around a small vegetable garden
Avoid sowing and / or planting if the ground is wet. This will preserve the soil from compaction.
The erbal border has a tremendous impact on the health of the garden, inside its boundaries, and out.
Lavender is said to be priority. Followed by sage, chives, rosemary, hyssop, and many others listed in the erbal section.
The border can be planted in any way with any mixture of erbs (be carefull with erbs like wormwood as mentioned in the erbal section). Bees and butterflies, as well as many other beneficial garden friends will thrive from the border.
After several years certain erbs will want replacing /swapping around, while others can be lifted, split up and replanted. Splitting often provides some new plants.
Examples of erbs for border;
Lavender, Sage, Rosemary, Hyssop, Lovage, Angelica, Cummin, Coriander, Rue, Thyme, Salad Burnet, Mugwort, Lungwort, Catmint (be careful of attracting cats), Lemon Balm, Chives, Costmary, Sorrel, Tarragon, Valerian, Wormwood.
What Plants Are Suitable For the Different Rows
1 / A = Long season plants,
2 / B = Medium season plants,
3 / C = Short season plants.
Order rows with 123 or ABC or 3 labels if you want. The number 1 rows are set 2 meters apart. Basically you can keep repeating the rows 1-3-2-3-1-3-2 ……. until wanted or until space is ended. These are only examples, most plants can be fit into 2 categories, like beetroot can grow in a middle term 2 / B row or a quick term, 3 / C row.
‘1 / A‘ rows want a ‘pre-seeding’ crop before the time the main crop goes in, as they usually go in about May;
In between two ‘1 / A‘ rows, are the B rows. These rows can be for plants which grow either in the first half or in the second half of the growing year. Examples are;
Each of these rows will yield at least 2 full crops.
Between the 1 / A rows and the 2 / B rows, at a distance of 50cm are 3 / C rows; plants for 3 / C rows are:
onion sets/bulbs raised from seed ,
These ‘3 / C’ rows are set with short-lived plants with small, low growth. They grow for a short time only and then make way for other, similar plants. They like the light shade of neighbouring plants. We often consume these the most and there is a concession (repeating) of crops, often 3 per year.
These rows provide the household with a variety of regular, nutritious food. After early varieties of 1 species, there can follow a late version of another species (For example spring carrots may be followed by a type of late lettuce or other salad crop). These 3 / C rows will produce 2 and often 3 crops, 1 after the other. If an 1 / A row is planted with something big/wide spreading like large sativa Kannah-Besem or cucumbers, the 3 / C rows to either side will likely be overtaken.
This carrot row is about to be harvested, before the Kannah-Besem overtakes it.
Some crops can go in different rows, like carrot fits into 2 / B rows and 3 / C rows, cauliflower can go in 1 / A rows or 2 / B rows.
There are many-sided, beneficial and well-balanced effects in companion and mixed planting which is visible to the naked eye, but not in that part alone; further advantages arise from the encouragement given to the micro-organisms in the soil and problems to do with the rotation of crops are also irrelevant.
The success or otherwise of a companion-planted garden depends on the row system. The labels must not be re-arranged during the year and there must always be double/succession (one after the other) sowings or plantings in the same rows. In a garden of this type, order is the 1st pre-requisite for success.
Choosing What To Grow And What Not To Grow
Choosing what will be grown should be based on what will be eaten (do not be distracted in trying to grow lots of different things for the sake of it), do not take too much on – if someone is offering free plants only take them if you need them, have the space and are willing and able to care for them. If the space allows, have an area set aside for experimenting with new techniques/combinations and for plants that the I is not familiar with. Incorporate plants into your proper vegetable garden when comfortable and confident in growing them. Initially begin by thinking of what is required /consumed the most.
It is important that these incompatible combinations are avoided whenever possible;
Beans and Onions,
Cabbages and Onions,
Red cabbages and Tomatoes,
Parsley and Cabbage lettuce,
Beetroots and Tomatoes,
Potatoes and Onions.
Try your own combinations out, as long as they are not the above it will probably work well. Plants grow with other plants in ‘communities’. The soil type, local climate, light and water availability are what chooses the plants that can grow in an area. Vegetables grow very well when planted in ‘communities’ and being interplanted with other plants. Also they are protecting each other, vibrating and helping each other through residues and smells (above and below ground) which we cannot always perceive with our senses.
Examples Of Plants That Make Good Combinations and Neighbours
Kannah-Besem/All Beans and Peas
Kannah Besem/Most types of Grasses
Celery/All types of Greens, Especially when mixed in rows
Take advantage of such an easy method of pest control. These easy methods are not only cost free, but are non-polluting. What goes on at root level, undetected by us, is important in the reciprocal effect of each plant on it’s neighbours. Combined with things like liquid feeds / sprays, companion planting makes growing plants much easier.
Spreading and Big Plants
Plants like Kannah-Besem, potatoes, cucumbers for example, often affect the row on either side of them if they spread / grow big. The row on each side may become un-sow-able, however, even in the shade of big Kannah-Besem plants some plants still grow very well.
Although rows can have 2 or 3 sowings a year (carrots, lettuce, salads like rocket , cress, mustard etc), when something like cucumber is reaching them, then the row will be harvested, but not re-sown like usual to allow the plant to spread – bear this in mind when planning. It may be possible to have 1 or 2 crops from 1 of these C rows but then the row will be overtaken by the bigger plants, growing in the row between, as shown above.
No Need for Crop Rotation if Row Planting, Instead Swap the Rows with Paths Fach New Growing Season
There is so much variety of different plants that all minerals and elements will be present – all crops grow good; due to generous row space, variety of plants, soil cover, organic feeds and re-sowing of rows.
Where the live-covering paths were the previous year, becomes the crop rows the following year:
Year 3 – Move rows along
In the third year, the layout will progress so that the rows and paths are set-out the same way as the 1st year, with the addition of the row content being moved along 1 row. It can be in any direction. In this example, each row is moved along to the right, and the 1st row becomes a 3 / C.
After harvesting a row, re-sow immediately, with another vegetable crop if suitable, or a cover plant like mustard – the soil should not be turned over (unless a new site like discussed previously). This will bury the active soil under a layer of inactive soil and disturb the relationship and balance between the soil life. Instead, prod with a fork. A good tilth is produced even with such easy work, because the soil is in such a good, healthy condition, being maintained by plant’s roots, cover and lots of soil life.
Beginning the Plan
Mark out on paper the area, and mark down the row order. There is no exact way, so begin with any row; 1/A, 2/B or 3/C.
Label the rows with labels too. Include the crops that are to follow as well on the label;
Now that the rows are marked, the first seeds can be sown!!! Depending what time of year it is, begin with the appropriate seeds. Cover crops like mustard and early crops like carrots will likely be sown first.
2nd Corinthinas 9:6) But this I say, He which soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully.
Give thanks and praises. The garden has begun, with continuous, steady work and progress, may JAH provide good fruits.
Keep checking for future posts helping to maintain the health and happiness of a garden.
See this post;
for ideas to begin starting the garden after it is planned.
After successfully completing Our recent long journey on invitations extended to Us from among friendly countries, namely the U.A.R., the U.S.S.R., Czechoslovakia, Belgium, France, Portugal and Yugoslavia, We are now happy and thankful to Almighty God to find Ourself in the midst of Our beloved people.
On Our return from Our previous journeys, We had made known to you the impressions left with Us by the reception extended to Us in the countries which we then visited. Because We believe that the very admirable reception and sincere expression of friendship extended to Us by the peoples and leaders of the countries that We visited recently were also directed to you, We desire to share with you the sentiments of these visits. We shall presently make known Our tasks regarding Our future programme for the socio-economic development of Our country.
Our first stop in Our long journey was the U.A.R. As We had accepted the invitation of H.E. President Gamal Abdel Nasser to visit the U.A.R., We stayed in that neighbouring country from the 24th to the 29th of June. During Our stay in the U.A.R., We discussed with President Abdel Nasser matters of mutual interest to our two countries and international affairs. We also visited various national centres and institutions of economic and social interest and importance.
From the start of Our visit in the U.A.R. the warm and cordial reception and the spontaneous expression of friend-ship extended to Us by President Gamal Abdel-Nasser and other leaders of the Government and the people of the country wherever We went, created in Us a feeling of great pleasure and satisfaction.
As you know, the relation between Ethiopia and the U.A.R. had its beginnings thousands of years ago. The peoples of the two countries, apart from being neighbours, have common aspirations and ideals, and are also bound by a common link which is the Great Blue Nile. During Our visit We discussed matters of mutual interest to our two countries, problems common to this region, as well as the general situation of the world. In particular, We are most satisfied that We were able to make personal acquaintance with President Gamal Abdel Nasser and to hold frank and friendly discussion with him regarding matters of common interest to our two nations and to have been able to reach complete understanding.
What We witnessed during Our brief stay in the U.A.R. regarding the progress of the industry and economy of the country was commendable. We were impressed by the hard work and struggle of the people to improve their standard of living.
From the many important achievements of Our visit, one which has given Us great satisfaction was the successful completion of the agreement regarding the relation of our two Churches. During Our reign We have spared no efforts to attain the greatness that is due to the Ethiopian Church which has been an island of Christianity in the Continent of Africa. We are most thankful to Almighty God to have witnessed the fruits of Our efforts during Our reign by the elevation of an Ethiopian to the Patriarchate of the Ethiopian Church.
After Egypt, We visited the Soviet Union. Although a few years have passed since We accepted an invitation to visit the Soviet Union, for various reasons We have not been able to go there earlier. We are now happy to have been able to visit that great country with which Ethiopia for a long time has maintained friendly relations.
One of the famous generals of the era of Peter the Great was Abraham Hannibal, who was an Ethiopian, and whose great grandson was the celebrated poet, Alexander Pushkin. We can therefore say that we have had a continued relation with the Soviet Union in the military and cultural fields.
Did not Recognize Occupation
In addition to the medical aid which the Soviet Union provided to Ethiopia, during the battle of Adowa and now in Our era, and, apart from the assistance We were able to obtain from that country through the Red Cross doctors during the Fascist invasion, the Soviet Union supported Our stand in the League of Nations for the freedom of Our country, and it was one of the few great powers that did not recognize the occupation of Our country by the Fascist aggressors.
From the moment of Our arrival in the Soviet Union, the warm and great reception accorded to Us by the peoples and their leaders, whose hospitality is well-known, was beyond Our expectation. Although it takes a long time to visit the whole of the Soviet Union, during Our fortnight stay there We were most impressed to see how the peoples of the Soviet Union have been able to recover from the aftermath of a devastating war, carrying out full reconstruction within a short period of time and achieving remarkable progress in economic, industrial, scientific, technical and social fields, and thus establishing themselves, within the span of forty years, as one of the great powers of Our time.
In the talks which we had with the leaders of the Soviet Union concerning our two countries in particular and world peace in general, We reached full understanding. Moreover, We were able to make personal acquaintance with Mr. Voroshilov, the President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, and Mr. Khrushchev, the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, and we had frank and friendly exchange of views on various matters and reached full agreement on all of them. As the result of our talks, agreements have been signed between our two governments for economic co-operation and the widening of the scope of our cultural and commercial relations. Apart from this, it is a measure of satisfaction to us all to have obtained a long-term loan of four hundred million roubles (400,000,000) at low interest to finance Ethiopia’s Five-Year Plan and the various other projects for the economic development of the country and the raising of the standard of living of Our people.
Ethiopia has abundant natural resources. However, because of lack of capital, it has not been possible to develop these natural resources for the benefit of the people. It is to exploit these natural resources and to carry out the Five-Year Plan for the benefit of Our people that We have acquired credits from friendly countries such as the United States, Yugoslavia, the Federal Republic of Germany and Czechoslovakia.
We believe that the assistance We obtained from the Soviet Union will greatly enhance the exploitation of our natural resources and the development of our economy.
After Our sojourn in the U.S.S.R. came to an end, We visited Czechoslovakia from the 13th to the 17th of July. The relations between Ethiopia and Czechoslovakia are of long standing. It was from this country that Ethiopia was able to acquire most of the arms and munitions needed to defend her jealously guarded independence against the Fascist invaders. Czechoslovakia was among the very few nations that courageously raised their voices in denouncing the Fascist invasion and in giving Us support in Our plea to the League of Nations. It is often said that “A friend in need is a friend indeed.” For this reason, among others, Ethio-Czechoslovak relations are based on a firm and proven foundation. In the early part of the post-war period, when Our defence means were limited, We turned to Czechoslovakia for the purchase of modern arms and the establishment of a munitions factory. You are all aware of the credit advanced to Our Government by the Czechoslovak Government for the purchase of equipment for our hospitals and other public health services.
The warm, cordial and great reception that was accorded Us by the leaders and the people of this friendly nation has once more proved to Us the existence of genuine and sincere friendship between our two nations. During Our sojourn in Czechoslovakia, We were able to visit great industrial establishments, agricultural centres, institutions of higher learning and other famous historical places. We were highly impressed by the tremendous progress achieved in the industrial as well as in the general economic field by the Czechoslovak people, especially in the post-war period.
Just as We have discussed and exchanged views with other leaders of the countries We have visited, We had a fruitful exchange of views with President Antonin Novotny on matters of common interest to our two nations as well as on general matters that concern world peace. The discussions and exchange of views were conducted in a friendly and cordial atmosphere and we were able to reach complete understanding. We have agreed to conclude economic and technical assistance agreements, as well as a cultural agreement, with a view to the further development and strengthening of the economic and cultural ties between our two countries. The Czechoslovak Government has expressed its willingness to help Us in Our effort to develop Our nation’s economy and to raise the standard of living of Our people by making it possible for Us to purchase from that country industrial and agricultural equipment by way of credit, which will greatly assist Us in the implementation of Our economic plans.
After Our visit to Czechoslovakia came to an end, We visited for three days the Kingdom of Belgium with which Ethiopia has maintained friendly relations for a long time. The friendly reception that was accorded Us by His Majesty King Baudouin, the Government officials and the people of Belgium, was cordial. We are pleased to have had an opportunity to meet King Baudouin in person and to have been able to exchange views on various subjects. We were able to gather that the people of Belgium have reposed great hopes in the King and that King Baudouin is a kind and understanding person. During Our short stay in Belgium We visited modern industrial establishments and various places of interest. By so doing, We were able to see for Ourself the progress achieved in the economic as well as in other fields by Belgium since Our first visit there thirty-five years ago. We believe that Our recent visit has further strengthen-ed the relations between our two countries.
After the conclusion of Our visit to Belgium, We stayed in Paris for two days. All of you are aware of the long and friendly relations that have existed between Ethiopia and France. The cordial welcome accorded Us by the people and Government of France, both recently and when We officially visited France four years ago, was a manifestation of the friendly feelings which the people of France entertain towards the people of Ethiopia.
Not only did We renew Our friendship with General de Gaulle, President of France, which We had cultivated during the time when our two countries were under hard trials, but We also conducted fruitful discussions concerning economic, commercial and cultural relations existing between Ethiopia and France. We also reached mutual understanding in broad discussion of matters of mutual concern to our two countries, and, in general, exchanged views concerning inter-national peace. General de Gaulle, whose greatness is well known in Ethiopia, has a friendly regard towards Our country.
On the invitation of the President of Portugal, We visited the Portuguese Republic from the 26th to the 3lst of July. Portugal is one of the friendly countries with which Ethiopia has had contact since the end of the Fifteenth Century.
The spontaneous and friendly welcome accorded Us during Our visit by the Government and people of Portugal has left a deep impression on Us. We had discussions with President Admiral Amerigo Thomas and the well-known Prime Minister, Mr. Salazar, concerning relations between our two countries and international peace. A cultural agreement was signed between our two Governments in order to develop the cultural ties that were first established in the Sixteenth Century and to study and make known the history of the two countries.
During Our short stay in the Federal Republic of Germany We were pleased to have had the opportunity to meet the President, Professor Huess, and to discuss with him matters of common interest.
Continuing Our visit to friendly countries, on the invitation of Our Great Friend H.E. Marshal Tito, We visited the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia from the 15th to the 23rd of August.
Example of Co-operation
As you know, We have, during a period of five years, visited Yugoslavia twice, and H.E. Marshal Tito has, in about the same period of time, visited Ethiopia twice. This is proof of the firm and friendly ties that exist between our two countries. Yugoslavia has not only granted Ethiopia a loan for the realization of the programme initiated for the economic development of Ethiopia, but has also extended assistance in the form of experts in the field of medicine and other various technical matters. These aids have shown fruitful results to the greatest satisfaction of both sides. Even though the two countries have different economic and internal political systems, these dissimilarities have not been obstacles to mutual understanding, co-operation and working together in a friendly spirit. This, We believe, is exemplary.
During Our stay in Yugoslavia, while visiting various regions and industrial centres We were highly impressed and touched by the true and friendly welcome and reception accorded Us by Our Great Friend Marshal Tito, his associates and the peoples of Yugoslavia. The development works and industrial centres which We visited were symbols of the amazing progress Yugoslavia has achieved in the socio-economic field in the last five years since We first visited Yugoslavia. In the course of Our recent stay in Yugoslavia, We discussed with Marshal Tito matters concerning the relationship of our two countries and explored ways and means to further strengthen the economic and commercial ties between our two nations. We also broadly discussed general international affairs. In the course of our discussions we reached as in the past, full understanding and identity of views.
It is undeniable that We have gained a great benefit and assistance for Our country and have increased its prestige by Our visits to friendly countries on various occasions during the past five years. Similarly, from Our recent visit, in addition to the fact that it has strengthened Our relations with friendly countries, has ensued great political results and it has enabled Us to secure credit to permit Us to implement the economic development projects which will raise the standard of living of Our beloved people.
All of you are aware that Ethiopia’s foreign policy is based on the principles of the United Nations Charter as well as on the Bandung and Accra Declarations. These principles which We have long cherished and for which We have striven are, among others, collective security, peaceful and active co-existence, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other nations and peaceful settlements of all disputes among nations.
Of the countries which We visited during Our recent trip, there are some whose economic and political systems are different from ours. We believe that these are made to serve the particular needs of each country and are matters of domestic concern to each nation, and for this reason We do not believe that such differences in political and economic systems should stand as a hindrance to the understanding, collaboration and co-operation among nations on important matters that are of common concern. Therefore, the misinterpretation that was placed by certain circles upon the meetings and discussions which We have had with the leaders of the countries that We have visited was not because they were not fully aware of the fact that Ethiopia’s foreign policy is based upon the above mentioned principles, but, rather, it seems, that this misinterpretation was intended to create an atmosphere that will serve their own particular interests.
In this age when man, through his knowledge of science, has created dangerous weapons to destroy himself, the responsibility of the great powers for the maintenance of world peace is well known to everyone. We believe that the exchange of visits by statesmen to talk over matters on which their points of view differ will greatly help remove the misunderstandings and mistrust prevailing among States. One of the aims of Our visit to friendly countries was to implement and strengthen this belief of Ours. After Our visit to the Soviet Union, We were happy to hear of the forthcoming exchange of visits between Mr. Khrushchev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., and Mr. Eisenhower, President of the United States of America. It is believed that the meeting of the two leaders will remove the dangerous situation now prevailing in the world and create an atmosphere of peace. We have expressed Our hope and best wishes and those of Our people that the talks they will hold during their meeting will be fruitful.
In all the countries that We have visited We have felt that all peoples are greatly concerned about the maintenance of world peace.
The peoples of the world today, as in the past, desire to work for the improvement of their standard of living and to live in peace. We do not agree with the point of view that the present unstable situation is the result of differences in the political, economic and social systems among nations.
Even though it is not possible to cite in history an era in which all the peoples of the world were in complete agreement on all things, nevertheless they have not been prevented from working in cooperation for their mutual benefit.
Purpose of Visits
The purposes and aims of Our visit are well known to all of you. However, We desire to share with you the main objectives of Our visit. These major objectives were the following: to find ways and means of raising the standard of living of Our people and the economic development of Our country; to discuss with leaders of friendly countries and acquire aid for the implementation of the programme which We have initiated for the progress of Our country; to observe personally their development projects, and choose from amongst them those projects that We believe will aid in the raising of the standard of living of Our people, and which will not only show fruitful results within Our time, but will also be a firm and unshakable foundation for generations to come so that all will work and struggle in a united effort for the welfare and prosperity of Our nation. Desirous that all Ethiopians will faithfully follow and give full support to the development programmes initiated by Us for the further progress of Our nation, We would like to cite as an example some of the things which, during Our former and recent visits, We have closely examined and personally witnessed and which We have chosen as being useful to the progress of Our people. In all the countries that We have toured, We have observed that the great fine arts so far achieved were preceded by many thousands of years of fine arts development attained by human effort. For example, during Our sojourn We have seen cathedrals, public buildings, edifices and monuments constructed and ornate with gold, diamonds, marble and precious stones. We were also impressed by the collection of fine arts achieved by the great masters of the past.
Call to the People
In connection with these achievements, when we enquire into the origins of the attempt of man to utilize this knowledge and go beyond these to extend the directions of his enquiry without limit, we find the reason for all these to be the desire of man to be diligent and to widen the horizon of his knowledge.
Although the beginnings of civilization of each country vary in time, the fundamental factors which gave impetus to each country to awaken and embark on the road to progress to reach their present level of development are those qualities which are enshrined in the nature of man, namely, desire and fortitude.
The present high standard of development has been achieved through the accumulation of knowledge from time immemorial. We would like Our people to realize that this is not something that has been accomplished at one stage nor by coincidence, nor has this stage been reached in one generation, but is the result of the toil, fortitude and sacrifices of succeeding generations. We have been prompted to refer briefly to the history of civilization because it is Our constant endeavour that all Ethiopians, in their attempt to satisfy their material needs, to invigorate their energy, eradicate idleness and generate an unceasing desire for better and more things, shall elevate their standard of living to that of the people inhabiting other parts of the world and be able to spare for others.
It is a fact that the knowledge and wealth that We had inherited from our ancestors which has been plundered and lost, could be excavated and discovered. But what we possess today has been initiated and established in Our lifetime.
It is by the understanding of past difficulties that we can bequeath fundamental guidances which would be of pride to the coming generations. We therefore urge Our people to struggle and to make sacrifices for those things which will enable them to ameliorate their conditions of life and leave a richer heritage.
We wish to recall to Our people what St. Paul said: “The night is far spent, the day is at hand; let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light. Let us walk honestly, as the day.” The Ethiopian people are now conscious of their destiny and can strive to achieve their ideals. In Our study of the various social systems during Our extended tour, We have found that the reason for their successful progress lies in the fact they have accumulated enough capital which, in turn, made it possible for them to carry out better farming, finance mining projects to serve their industry, harness their rivers, and in general exploit their natural resources.
It is only through their achievements and not because of the difference in their innate ability nor in their numerical superiority that some countries have attained a high degree of progress while those which have not fully developed and utilized their inborn abilities and thereby lagged behind in tapping their natural resources have been labelled “under-developed.” The latter have become the dumping-ground of the expensive manufactured goods of the former.
Exert Greater Effort
The only way to safeguard Ethiopia’s political and economic independence is for her to make progress and stand on her own feet by exerting greater effort. When We compare Our country with others, We can say that the forests, the rivers, the mountains and the plains constitute wealth. We should all be proud of these fortunate blessings, with which Almighty God has endowed Our country.
Brace yourselves for hard work and pool your resources to compete with others in the economic and commercial activities of your motherland. Let each one of us be conscious of his responsibilities and firmly discharge his obligations, thereby becoming master of his own destiny. It is better to till the land rather than to bicker on trivial matters. It is better to exploit effectively a small tract of land rather than to proclaim as being the owner of vast idle land.
Our waterfalls are sources of immense power and energy when properly harnessed. Use these waters to irrigate your land and you will be able to have two harvests annually. The naked mountains and hills are as useful as the plains below. Plant them with fir trees, teakwoods, eucalyptus and other trees and within a short time you will increase the forest resources of your country.
Tend your livestock. Just as one cannot harvest unless he cultivates his land, so also one cannot expect good results from his livestock unless he tends them carefully.
You have a rich land that yields a variety of products. Do not be contented with the satisfaction of your bare needs, but instead, cultivate your land among others with oleogenous plants, the seeds of which you can export for your greater benefit. Use the forest woods to make furniture and implements and exchange them for money. Your workmanship will be a monument to your name.
Value of Thrift
One should realize that thriftiness is the basis for the accumulation of wealth and the economic growth of a nation. One seldom minimizes the value of money earned by the sweat of the brow however small it may be, but for the extravagant even a huge amount of money is worthless. Know how to use your money wisely and effectively. A habit once formed becomes an incurable second nature. Therefore utilize your wealth for worthwhile things and avoid employing it for harmful purposes and for monetary pleasures.
What are the things you possess? What are your objectives in acquiring them? Learn how to spend wisely and the increase of your wealth will eventually be your guide.
Use your savings where it will pay you most. The hoarding of money does not yield dividends! If you wish your savings to pay you higher dividends, join in with those of your fellow citizens. It is through hard work, know-how, and patience that you will be able to increase your capital. The foundation and essential characteristics of a healthy society are mutual trust and confidence. Unless man undertakes the improvement of his society in co-operation with others, his striving for wealth becomes mere wishes. Do not be the victims of temporary contentment and petty satisfactions. Aspire for worthwhile aims that shall be ideals for succeeding generations.
Individual and Nation
The prosperity of each individual constitutes the wealth of Our nation which will eventually enable Us to expand the schools and hospitals that We have established for the welfare of Our people. The expansion of public health services will decrease the mortality rate and increase Our population.
Just as a farm that is not taken care of cannot be free of weeds, so is also the development of a society. It cannot be denied that there are some people who have scrupulously or unscrupulously attempted to or have acquired wealth. If the wealth of a person cannot be for the general welfare, what would he gain for himself and his offspring but grudge and hatred? The fruits of one’s sweat and mental labour are always rewarding, not only to oneself but also to one’s succeeding generations. Be resolute in your work and attempt to complete whatever you undertake. If you face failure, try again and persist in your determination to attain your aim. Develop a healthy pursuit of life and do not limit your efforts to satisfying your selfish desires.
In particular, our youth must be steadfast and take advantage of the benefits of modern civilization. Do not fall prey to idleness for it shall be a curse to you and to succeeding generations. You must set yourselves up as examples of determination and hard work. Plan your time and use both your physical and mental powers purposefully and productively.
We must remember that man’s achievements in the field of wireless communications, aviation, medical sciences and many others have been accomplished through the ages by patience and hard work, diligence, perseverance and tenacity. It is in the light of these that We urge Our youth to struggle constantly and unceasingly to achieve their aims.
Capital and Labour
The fact that medical doctors, engineers, pilots, the cadets, in the various military academies, nurses, teachers and the many other professionals, have been successfully trained in the various schools that We have established, will serve as an illustration of what We have stated above. Convinced that capital and labour are necessary ingredients for wealth and prosperity and that these two factors are absolute essentials for the economic development of Our country, and believing that Our beloved people shall apply itself to the task of its economic progress, We have acquired loans from friendly countries.
Henceforth, the next step for each Ethiopian, wherever he may be and whatever his endeavours are, is to follow Our directions and to devote himself assiduously to the execution of Our plan for the betterment of Our country. If we fail to use profitably the credit which We have acquired for the development of our communications system, port facilities and the establishment of industries, we shall have brought a heavy liability, not only upon ourselves but upon succeeding generations.
Ethiopians, have courage and brace yourselves up. Unless you improve your lot by the sweat of your brow nobody will shoulder your responsibilities. Provided that you pursue your task with unswerving dedication, We, on Our part, shall do everything possible to assist you in your forward march.
Help Made Available
Just as We have done in the past, We shall make available to you through various experts, directives which will serve as your guide in your work.
We have instructed the municipalities to prepare and make available to you at little cost various types of seedlings. We shall organize teams of experts who will give you advice and counsel in the fields of agriculture and public health. We shall also set up groups of experts who will give you advice and counsel in cooperative farming and trading.
For the purpose of cultivating oleogenous plants and to the end that you may have better marketing possibilities, We shall make available to you experts.
We shall organize for you a team of experts to study your needs and the ways and means of improving the quality of crops and trading systems in relation to the present economic and marketing conditions.
As We hold Our people in great affection so do they entertain great feelings of affection towards Us. As a father should bequeath not only wealth to his children but also provide them with proper education so that they may have a richer and fuller life, so should it be the duty of those for whom much has been done to show gratitude. Therefore, let us unite Our efforts to show in deeds what We profess in words.
In conclusion, since the ideas that We have conceived and the projects that have been planned for the development of the country can best materialize by the incessant efforts of Our people and the application of everyone’s ability in harmonious cooperation, We call upon Our people to be steadfast in this noble and challenging undertaking.
May Almighty-God sustain Us to realize these high ideals.