Flower Bed Tips – Weeding, Edging and Covering

Garden Care, Planning & Beginning a Garden
0 IMG_2621

From top to bottom; Edging Spade (Half Moon), Edging Shears, Hand Fork, Fork, Spade, Rake. Also wheelbarrow for turf – and bucket for weeds and roots.

0 0 0 IMG_2524

Begin clearing the bed of weeds and their roots using the forks and bucket.

0 0 fork over first IMG_2586

Roses, aquilegia, and other flowers.

18 IMG_2628

Chive plants grow well with roses, as do most onion type plants.

1 IMG_2623

Now use the edging spade to make a fresh edge.



2 IMG_25832 point 5 IMG_2584

3  IMG_2579

Begin removing the turf where it has been cut.

4 IMG_25815 IMG_25876 IMG_2589

6 point 1 IMG_2590

The new edge will begin to form.

6 point 2 IMG_2588

The turf can be put in the barrow for using elsewhere or composting.

6 point 5 IMG_25986 point 6 IMG_2592

7 IMG_2601

Now the edging shears can be used to cut off the overhanging grass on the new edge.

8 IMG_2602

Usually it is best to place them on a slight angle.

8 point 1 IMG_25948 point 2 IMG_2596

9 IMG_2603

Now the trimmed bits of grass can be removed.

10 IMG_260711 IMG_2609

12 IMG_2611

The gravel around the other edge was managed by using a rake, and also hands and gloves.

13 IMG_2615

Rake some of the soil in the bed toward the edge, to fill in the depression.

14 IMG_2620

The plants can now be given a live covering. At this job, the customer orders this product (strulch) for their trees and beds. Also, woodchip can be used – see here and here.

15 IMG_2617

This is the covering on a different bed. Use plenty of covering.

16 IMG_2625

This bed was done previously  (the other bed is not going to have covering applied yet, as the owner would like to plant some plants in the gaps first).

13 point 5 IMG_2632 cropped

17 IMG_2630


Using Shredded / Chipped Wood and Branches for Live Covering / Mulch

Plant Care, Uncategorized

Use wood and branches that have been prepared by machinery such as a chipper or shredder as soil covering. It will keep the soil protected in many ways – see here for more information. Different plants, shrubs or trees will create a different end materiel, some will be mostly wood (bramble/hazel) ranging through to leafy and green (elder/conifer). Additionally, properties in the cells of wood will help prevent weed seeds from germinating (see: lignin – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lignin). When it is very woody, mix it in with some green material. A mature erbal border will also be a good source of material, after they finish flowering.

a IMG_2844 A Garden Shredder

b IMG_2022

A different shredder using conifer

c IMG_2444

This has been through a chipper, which is more heavy duty than the 2 machines above. This would be a little to woody on it’s own – it would need to be mixed with some greenery.

d IMG_2024

e IMG_2497




0 IMG_2390

A Row of Broad Beans on Left and Potatoes on Right, Reggy for a Covering

1 IMG_2391

Broad Beans (Right) – Potatoes (Left)

2 IMG_2402

3 IMG_2403

4 IMG_2404

5 IMG_2410

6 IMG_2405

6 point 1 IMG_2854

Now the potatoes and beans are grown up. Mustard from the pear tree bed has grown into the sight of the beans, but they are fine and happy.

7 IMG_2446

8 IMG_2499

Peas (Left) – Radish (Right)

9 IMG_2502

10 IMG_2500

11 IMG_2856

Potatoes (Left) – Peas (Middle) – Radish (Right) [there is also a field bean with the radish – the odd single annual plant like this bean is fine to leave growing in place. Also this can be done with any annual erb like dill, mustard, qanneh-besem etc. The odd one here and there will bring great benefits.]

Removing and Dealing With Un-Necessary Roots

Planning & Beginning a Garden

Tips for removing roots from the soil,

Turn over soil, to expose roots. Roots like bindweed, dandelion, grass etc are removed. Once a garden is becoming mature and having regular toppings of shredded / chopped branches / twigs / herbal flower heads etc, this type of thing will be much less of a problem.




The roots can be dealt with in various manners, however, they should not be put into compost, as they will likely carry on growing;

IMG_2009 cropped

Compost Pile – Try to avoid these type of roots getting in compost

One way to dispose of them is to feed them to animals for food:

IMG_2005 cropped


Another way, is to leave them to dry out in a dry place, like a pathway for example:


And also, they can be burnt:

HIM meskel cross feast finding fire helena smoke -d-consuming-fire

Remove any stones along the way, rake the soil level and sow cover crops like mustard, field beans, lupin, clover etc.


Strawberry plants can also be made out in this picture. They enjoy growing with mustard, leeks, onions etc.

Next will be to plan and mark out rows if not done and then sow crops throughout the season. See;


Tie-ing up Tomatoes Example


Here are some example pictures of tie-ing tomatoes from above. In this example, the tie is tied directly to the base of the stem on each plant, however it can also be tied to the pot, something sticking out the pot, or something next to the pot like a short stake in the ground.








Tie as gently as possible. As the plant grows it will loosen with it. As the plants grow, they can be gradually twisted around the string.
















Live Cycling (A.K.A. Mulching, Soil Covering, Sheet Composting)

Plant Care, Uncategorized

The soil between vegetable rows is kept covered once seedlings are up and around hand height, first with the early sowing of spinach or light cover, which can protect neighbouring seedlings from pests and sun. The roots of the spinach (see post on spinach) and mustard which are left in the ground, adds a further dimension to the benefits. At the beginning of the growing season, a cover crop can be sown half way between each row, or the space can be covered straight away with live covering, once the seedlings are near hand height. Spinach grown half way between the crop rows, works best for this. Chop it down once the crop seedlings are established. Over the year build the cover with nearly all things green (accept a few mentioned later).

Keeping it topped up with as much variation as possible, ensures that this season’s and especially next season’s crop will be as well furnished as possible. Using erbs (including ones from the border) as part of the cover will greatly benefit the soil and the life within while preventing pests and disease.

Some advantages of cover;

Keeps soil protected from direct sunlight,

Provides shade,

Keeps soil protected from rain,

Keeps soil protected from wind,

Collects dew,

Acts as a filter for plants,

Preserves moisture,

Reduces the need for watering massively,

Creates a good home for roots, earthworms, and lots of other creatures,

Prevents weeds,

Nutrients are stored, preserved and released properly to plants – roots have an abundant supply and apportion nutrients and water to the receiving plant with ease,

Roots are in a happy environment, nearly always moist but never waterlogged.

Aim to keep soil that does not have seedlings/plants growing in it, covered at all times. Soil which is rooted with roots and shaded by leaves produces proper plants in time. Then these plants will eventually become food for the soil and the live-cycle continues.

The covering provides food for earthworms and all other soil life, while also protecting soil from damage, nutrient leaching, water leaching, capping from the sun etc. Covering is not only the best way to achieve a good soil, but also the best method for preserving good soil. (NOTE: Covering is not usually used until the vegetable seedlings are about hand height, so the covering doesn’t cover the seedlings. [Wind, birds etc move the covering about]).

No straw or peat. Use plenty of medicinal erbs, leaves of harvested vegetables / erbs, wild flowers, flowers which have finished (seeds in flower heads/fruit pods are not a problem), lawn and grass cuttings and hedge clippings are all good. Keep tidy and ordered. A path will quickly be formed, and when the covering is proper and thick, it can even be used as a path in wet, rainy weather.

Chopping the material up helps to keep tidiness and order. Also, woody material can be chopped up if the equipment is available. When chopped into small fine pieces it is ideal for cover and properties within the cells of wood prevent weeds from germinating and growing. Using woody material, that is not shredded, takes a long time to break down and so is un-practical for cover.

Chopping Up Live Cover










Planning A Harmonious Vegetable Garden

Planning & Beginning a Garden

Initial Planning

Choose a suitable garden area, based on access, soil, wanted size, light conditions, heat conditions, wind protection and water availability.

After choosing a site, List and plan on paper the initial ideas;

-rough size,

-plants that will be grown,

-amount of rows (500 mm apart), rows will be explained further on,

-water source positions etc.

Inspect the soil of the chosen garden spot. Make note of what plants are living in the soil. Check soil structure. If hard/clay/stony, then turn it over, with what is required and appropriate (fork, rotovator, plough etc). For clay add sand etc. For sandy soil add organic matter (leaves, grass cuttings, compost etc). If soil is soft, fine and crumbly then check for stones and remove roots of existing, invasive perennial plants. Soil nutrient content can often be figured out by the plants that are living in the soil. Roots of any annuals (marigold etc) can remain in the soil for soil nutrition.

For the first few years, the soil may need turning over fully, each winter or whenever is suitable, to keep on top of it – each site will be different. After a few years of cultivation, the soil will be able to be managed, a row at a time. For instance; When a row is harvested and it is not going to be sowed again with crops until the next season, then the soil is slightly prodded, and loosely worked. Then it is sown with an appropriate cover-plant like mustard, or it is covered over with live-cycle cover (leaves, grass, shredded twigs, wildflowers etc).

It is normal to take some time for planning, allow for inspiration to happen. Trust that Yahh will finish the process and that He will allow good fruits to be bourne. InI find it best to roll up a good 1, get a pencil, some paper, seeds, then go to the garden and begin planning. It will probably take a lot of erasing and a few times to get the final plan. Include paths, gates, water points and anything else which may be necessary in the plan.


For a few years muddy, messy paths had to be put up with


Eventually we acquired slabs for a few pathways 

Use the sections’ on plant neighbours and incompatibilities, to help make the plan.

Sow lots of erb seeds and/or acquire erb plants for the border of the garden. Starting the erbal seedlins early will allow some to be able to be planted around the border of the garden to create a protecting, erbal border. The border can also contain other annuals and perennials too.

Fence the site off, mark out paths, mark out vegetable rows and gates.

Plant erbs round the border – it does not matter if the whole border is not filled or even empty – over time it can be added to with more erbs until filled.

Planting Chives in Erbal Border

Here is a erbal border around a small vegetable garden

Avoid sowing and / or planting if the ground is wet. This will preserve the soil from compaction.

The erbal border has a tremendous impact on the health of the garden, inside its boundaries, and out.

Lavender is said to be priority. Followed by sage, chives, rosemary, hyssop, and many others listed in the erbal section.

The border can be planted in any way with any mixture of erbs (be carefull with erbs like wormwood as mentioned in the erbal section). Bees and butterflies, as well as many other beneficial garden friends will thrive from the border.

After several years certain erbs will want replacing /swapping around, while others can be lifted, split up and replanted. Splitting  often provides some new plants.

Examples of erbs for border;

Lavender, Sage, Rosemary, Hyssop, Lovage, Angelica, Cummin, Coriander, Rue, Thyme, Salad Burnet, Mugwort, Lungwort, Catmint (be careful of attracting cats),  Lemon Balm, Chives, Costmary, Sorrel, Tarragon, Valerian, Wormwood.

What Plants Are Suitable For the Different Rows

1 / A = Long season plants,

2 / B = Medium season plants,

3 / C = Short season plants.

Order rows with 123 or ABC or 3 labels if you want. The number 1 rows are set 2 meters apart. Basically you can keep repeating the rows 1-3-2-3-1-3-2 ……. until wanted or until space is ended. These are only examples, most plants can be fit into 2 categories, like beetroot can grow in  a middle term 2 / B row or a quick term, 3 / C row.

 ‘1 / A‘ rows want a ‘pre-seeding’ crop before the time the main crop goes in, as they usually go in about May;


Tomato ,

Corn ,

Peas ,

Runner beans ,

Cucumbers ,

Late cabbage ,

Broad Beans,


Courgettes., etc.

In between two ‘1 / A‘ rows, are the B rows. These rows can be for plants which grow either in the first half or in the second half of the growing year. Examples are;

Semi-Autofloweriing Kannah-Besem,



black salsify,




spring greens,



spinach etc.

Each of these rows will yield at least 2 full crops.

 Between the 1 / A rows and the 2 / B rows, at a distance of 50cm are 3 / C rows; plants for 3 / C rows are:

Auto-flowering Kannah–Besem ,

Carrots ,

onion sets/bulbs raised from seed ,

lettuce ,

endives ,

kohlrabi ,

fennel, .

These ‘3 / C’ rows are set with short-lived plants with small, low growth. They grow for a short time only and then make way for other, similar plants. They like the light shade of neighbouring plants. We often consume these the most and there is a concession (repeating) of crops, often 3 per year.

These rows provide the household with a variety of regular, nutritious food. After early varieties of 1 species, there can follow a late version of another species (For example spring carrots may be followed by a type of late lettuce or other salad crop). These 3 / C rows will produce 2 and often 3 crops, 1 after the other. If an 1 / A row is planted with something big/wide spreading like large sativa Kannah-Besem or cucumbers, the 3 / C rows to either side will likely be overtaken.

This carrot row is about to be harvested, before the Kannah-Besem overtakes it.

Some crops can go in different rows, like carrot fits into 2 / B rows and 3 / C rows, cauliflower can go in 1 / A rows or 2 / B rows.

There are many-sided, beneficial and well-balanced effects in companion and mixed planting which is visible to the naked eye, but not in that part alone; further advantages arise from the encouragement given to the micro-organisms in the soil and problems to do with the rotation of crops are also irrelevant.

The success or otherwise of a companion-planted garden depends on the row system. The labels must not be re-arranged during the year and there must always be double/succession (one after the other) sowings or plantings in the same rows. In a garden of this type, order is the 1st pre-requisite for success.

Choosing What To Grow And What Not To Grow

Choosing what will be grown should be based on what will be eaten (do not be distracted in trying to grow lots of different things for the sake of it), do not take too much on – if someone is offering free plants only take them if you need them, have the space and are willing and able to care for them. If the space allows, have an area set aside for experimenting with new techniques/combinations and for plants that the I is not familiar with. Incorporate plants into your proper vegetable garden when comfortable and confident in growing them. Initially begin by thinking of what is required /consumed the most.

It is important that these incompatible combinations are avoided whenever possible;

Beans and Onions,

Cabbages and Onions,

Red cabbages and Tomatoes,

Parsley and Cabbage lettuce,

Beetroots and Tomatoes,

 Potatoes and Onions.

It is not good to put spinach as a preliminary crop before beetroot, mangolds (shard/chard) or orach (fat hen)

Try your own combinations out, as long as they are not the above it will probably work well. Plants grow with other plants in ‘communities’. The soil type, local climate, light and water availability are what chooses the plants that can grow in an area. Vegetables grow very well when planted in ‘communities’ and being interplanted with other plants. Also they are protecting each other, vibrating and helping each other through residues and smells (above and below ground) which we cannot always perceive with our senses.

Examples Of Plants That Make Good Combinations and Neighbours


Kannah Besem/Parsnip

Kannah-Besem/All Beans and Peas

Kannah Besem/Most types of Grasses


















Celery/All types of Greens, Especially when mixed in rows



Take advantage of such an easy method of pest control. These easy methods are not only cost free, but are non-polluting. What goes on at root level, undetected by us, is important in the reciprocal effect of each plant on it’s neighbours. Combined with things like liquid feeds / sprays, companion planting makes growing plants much easier.

Spreading and Big Plants

Plants like Kannah-Besem, potatoes, cucumbers for example, often affect the row on either side of them if they spread / grow big. The row on each side may become un-sow-able, however, even in the shade of big Kannah-Besem plants some plants still grow very well.

Although rows can have 2 or 3 sowings a year (carrots, lettuce, salads like rocket , cress, mustard etc), when something like cucumber is reaching them, then the row will be harvested, but not re-sown like usual to allow the plant to spread – bear this in mind when planning. It may be possible to have 1 or 2 crops from 1 of these C rows but then the row will be overtaken by the bigger plants, growing in the row between, as shown above.

No Need for Crop Rotation if Row Planting, Instead Swap the Rows with Paths Fach New Growing Season

There is so much variety of different plants that all minerals and elements will be present – all crops grow good; due to generous row space, variety of plants, soil cover, organic feeds and re-sowing of rows.

Where the live-covering paths were the previous year, becomes the crop rows the following year:

Planning garden year 1 and 2jpg

Year 3 – Move rows along

In the third year, the layout will progress so that the rows and paths are set-out the same way as the 1st year, with the addition of the row content being moved along 1 row. It can be in any direction. In this example, each row is moved along to the right, and the 1st row becomes a 3 / C.

Year 1 and 3jpg

Light Work

After harvesting a row, re-sow immediately, with another vegetable crop if suitable, or a cover plant like mustard – the soil should not be turned over (unless a new site like discussed previously). This will bury the active soil under a layer of inactive soil and disturb the relationship and balance between the soil life. Instead, prod with a fork. A good tilth is produced even with such easy work, because the soil is in such a good, healthy condition, being maintained by plant’s roots, cover and lots of soil life.

Beginning the Plan

Mark out on paper the area, and mark down the row order. There is no exact way, so begin with any row; 1/A, 2/B or 3/C.

Example plans;

Label the rows with labels too. Include the crops that are to follow as well on the label;

Now that the rows are marked, the first seeds can be sown!!! Depending what time of year it is, begin with the appropriate seeds. Cover crops like mustard and early crops like carrots will likely be sown first.

Sow Bountifully

2nd Corinthinas 9:6) But this I say, He which soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully.

Give thanks and praises. The garden has begun, with continuous, steady work and progress, may JAH provide good fruits.

Keep checking for future posts helping to maintain the health and happiness of a garden.

See this post;

Beginning a Harmonious Garden,

for ideas to begin starting the garden after it is planned.