Sow parsnips with marigold and dill and/or fennel.
Grow onions as a neighbour, or grow some in the row of parsnips.
Cover the soil beside the row, with live-covering.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
After harvesting, sow mustard seeds.
Greetings in the love and faith of Aiyasus Kristos, during this significant time for Solar-Lunar timings.
Although a time of harvest, in going from faith to faith, mustard is continued to be sown.
Especially in climates that will enter winter in the northern hemisphere and later for the southern, mustard is usefull and valuable in this time. When crops are complete, sow mustard in place.
In this example, potatoes and peas were grown this last season. Now the ground has been cleared and within a day and a half, mustard begins to live and thrive, as the climate enters the more dormant season’s.
The ground is cleared;
Now the mustard seeds are broadcast onto the soil;
Praise Abba, In 24 hours, many of the mustard seeds have allreaggy begun to sprout;
Now the soil will remain sound, for next spring. If the weather stays mild and the mustard gets above hand height, it shall be re-sown.
H.I.M. Girmawi Qedamawi Haile Selassie 23rd July Earthday 2015
Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,
Ras Tafari Renaissance writes to give perspective to the Ethiopian commemoration of what is known in Ras Tafarian circles as the “EarthStrong” or Birth date of Ras Tafari, H.I.M.self. Prophecies were fulfilled, constellations were aligned, what more can we here at Ras Tafari Renaissance say about the birth date, of His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie (born July 23, 1892; Täfäri Makʷennin wolde-Mikáèl [ተፈሪ መኳንን ወልደ ሚካኤል]).
In Ejersa Goro, in the Harage Province, some 18 miles outside the city of Harar, Ethiopia. he was born to Ras Makʷennin (or pronounced Makonnen) & Yashimabet Ali; even in a Christ-like manner in rural Harar, of the late 1800s . He was the son of Ras Makʷennin, Governor of Harar under…
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Spinach can be grown as a food crop, in it’s own row, or; grown as a cover / catch crop – sown half way between where the vegetable/erb plants will grow. Once the spinach is germinated, use a hoe or similar tool to remove wild plants.
These photographs show pre-crops, spinach and field beans, after recently germinating and emerging from the soil. The field beans grow in the row, exactly where a crop will grow, whereas the spinach is growing half-way between 2 crop rows, where it will become the pathway when the actual crop seedlings have emerged.
The ground is bound togather by a gradually developing network of roots which prevents the nutrients/micronutrients/constituents of the soil from being washed away while at the same time preventing the land from becoming parched.
-provides the young plants with protection and shade,
-prevents the soil from drying out,
-discourages certain pests,
-provides material for sheet composting (on the soil surface).
Spinach roots are soft and easily broken down by the soil life. The soil can be reworked, and the spinach, with it’s contents of saponine and mucins and it’s soft mass of leaves, has a quick fertilizing effect. The decaying roots and the leaves which have been cut down provide early nourishment for soil organisms; these now become intensely active as the climate warms up. It is easy to remove the spinach with a flat or draw hoe.
Spinach increases the food supply of earthworms and of all other visible and invisible inhabitants of the soil.
Spinach, beans and lettuce;
Field beans and spinach, the field beans are being removed for Qanneh-Besem Seeds;
In this photograph, the 2 rows of spinach is reaggy to be removed, to make room for the lettuce on the right, and some small swede/rutabaga seedlings that have recently germinated. The row of spinach on the left, is also growing with mustard. On the far left is a row of field beans;
The spinach now becomes the pathway between the rows of crops, while the roots underground slowly breakdown and recycle.
Now the Live-Covering can be added;
Spinach and mustard as early crops – protecting the soil.
Crops are now beginning to appear – like the bush beans on the right hand side.
The spinach is chopped down to protect the soil and crop seedlings (swede/rutabagu – beetroot – beans).
The garden can now begin to grow happy and healthy with care and attention.
The ground in these photographs was helped in winter by planting field beans, see this post for more information;
“It gives Us great pleasure to be present here to inaugurate the College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, an occasion which marks a great and far-reaching advance in Our programme for the promotion of agricultural education. This institution will serve as a source of inspiration in carrying out the agricultural programme which We have laid down for the future.
In establishing this College for the development of the natural wealth of Our country, agriculture and animal husbandry, on modern and scientific lines, Our main purpose has not been merely to develop and utilize these basic resources to supply the daily needs of Our people, but, in addition, to produce a surplus to be shared with other countries of the world. Ethiopia,
to some degree, has done this in the past. For example, when the world was sorely distressed by lack of food immediately after the Second World War, Our country, although she herself had for five long years been struggling to recover from the terrible damage inflicted upon her during the War, was yet able to perform a significant service in supplying foodstuffs to the countries of the Middle East. And We have been pleased to observe how, since then, Our people have increasingly devoted themselves to improving the agriculture of Our country.
A country and a people that become self-sufficient by the development of agriculture can look forward with confidence to the future.
Agriculture is not only the chief among those fundamental and ancient tasks which have been essential to the survival of mankind, but also ranks first among the prerequisites to industrial and other developments. History affords Us ample evidence that mankind abandoned its nomadic way of life and developed a settled, communal economy only when man became skilled and competent in agricultural techniques. From the beginnings of recorded history, right up to the Middle Ages, and even as late as the beginning of the Industrial Age in which we now live, agriculture has always constituted the fundamental source of wealth for the human race.
Only when a solid agricultural base has been laid for Our country’s commercial and industrial growth can We ensure the attainment of the ultimate goal of Our development programme, namely, a high standard of
living for Our people. Commerce and industry, being concerned in the main with development and distribution, can only develop and profit from existing resources, but cannot actually create things which did not exist before.
Most of the districts of Our Harar Province are populated mainly by nomadic peoples. Now that We are in a position to anticipate an adequate water supply from the rivers and wells in the region, the area will flourish and land will no longer lie fallow in the Province, if only the people of Ogaden, Esa and Adal could be educated in agricultural techniques. All this can be
attained only by means of the wisdom which flows from the fountain of education, and while this College will serve the whole of Our country, its being established in the Province of Harar is the result of careful planning and consideration on Our part.
Even in this nuclear age, in spite of the revolutionary changes in man’s way of life which science has brought about, the problem of further improving and perfecting agricultural methods continues to hold a position of high
priority for the human race. It is hard to believe that a substitute can ever be found for the occupation of agriculture — sacred task graciously conferred upon man by God to serve as the source of his well-being and the basis of his wealth.
Our country, Ethiopia, being blessed with an abundance of natural resources, need not be anxious about her own needs. However, it is Our constant endeavour and Our firm desire, that Our people will produce not only enough to meet their own requirements but that their production will enable them to share and exchange the fruits of their labour with other countries.
If only Ethiopia, with an assured wealth of natural resources, would look at what the barren Sahara Desert has been made to produce by the endeavour of trained scientists, she would realize that science is the source
of wealth. We would, therefore, have Our students and scholars accept as their primary duty the attainment of scientific knowledge through education.
We have placed Our trust in this College to be the chief instrument for the attainment of this high goal, and We are confident that the students who have today received their diplomas from Our hands, as well as those
who follow them in the future, will through the achievements furnish Us with tangible evidence of the fulfilment of this Our purpose and Our desire.
Agriculture and industry are indispensable one to the other. Only close cooperation between these two branches of knowledge can guarantee the fulfilment of Our programme of economic development for Our country.
This College, which holds a prominent place in the plans We have laid down for the prosperity and welfare of Our beloved people and country, can look forward to receiving the same constant support which We have shown in the past.
It is with pleasure that We express on this occasion Our gratitude to Our great friend, the United States of America, for the generous and significant assistance they have given to this institution as part of their great effort
for the development of the spirit of cooperation and understanding among the nations of the world. We would request His Excellency the Ambassador to convey Our thanks to his Government.
If the late Dr. Bennet, who laid the plans for this institution and whose great desire and tireless efforts to achieve the establishment of an Agricultural and Mechanical College in this country are well-known to Us, were with Us today to see the fulfilment of his plans, how happy he would have been! With deep sorrow in Our heart, remembering the words “Man proposes, God disposes”, We pay a tribute to his memory in this hour.
We would like to express Our sincere thanks to the Director of the Point Four Programme in this country, the President and staff of this College, and all of Our officials who have laboured to bring this institution into
It is not enough for the children of Ethiopia to be recipients of education. They should never forget that the responsibility for passing on this knowledge to others and of handing it over to the next generation rests on
His Imperial Majesty, Qedamawi Haile Selassie The Ist, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings, Emperor of Ethiopia, Elect of God.
Here are some example pictures of tie-ing tomatoes from above. In this example, the tie is tied directly to the base of the stem on each plant, however it can also be tied to the pot, something sticking out the pot, or something next to the pot like a short stake in the ground.
Tie as gently as possible. As the plant grows it will loosen with it. As the plants grow, they can be gradually twisted around the string.
If growing in rows, give plants plenty of room. Plants within each row should be about 18 inches apart. Different varieties may be allowed closer plantings or need more than 18 inches. These hungry plants like lots of food, like; nettle, Kannah-Besem, comfrey etc feeds.
Rows are planted 2 meters apart, and if lots of tomatoes are desired, another mixed row can be added. Before they grow in their row [either by direct sowing or planting], pre-plant it with mustard or/and field/broad beans, and fertilize the soil with a liquid feed.
Air moves free and plants stay healthy and breathe well, as the atmosphere stays ‘sweet’ from the space. They can be utilised as protector and defence plants, plant things like kohlrabi, cauliflower + other cabbage family members, auto-flower Kannah-Besem etc which do not grow too big. These plants being protected can be harvested to make room for the tomatoes when they need it.
When planting out tomato plants, dip them in a liquid feed of erbs or other plants, and do not plant them out before hard frost has gone for the season. Straight away water them with a watered down feed [nettle/Kannah Besem, comfrey or other will do as well]. Plant them deep, and make sure the lowest flowers are not above a hand’s breadth above the soil.
Plants which are really tall can be planted at an angle so the flowers are still within a hands breadth of the soil.
They can be tied to support, like a strong stake, for taller, slimmer plants or grown ‘wildly’ for bushy, low plants.
Now the plants are growing, under-sow them with marigold, and / or mustard. Both act as partners and eventually cover.
Keep all leaves of the plants, as these are needed for energy (do not remove unnecessary leaves, however, if leaves cover fruit, then they may be removed).
If growing with support nip off various side shoots from the axils of the leaves. Bushy plants can be attained by nipping off the main tip.
If growing in greenhouses, or blocks, follow the principles as above, for feeding, planting, support, and also space plants appropriately. In greenhouses/glasshouses it is possible to support from above with string etc.
What Plants Are Suitable For the Different Rows
1 / A = Long season plants,
2 / B = Medium season plants,
3 / C = Short season plants.
Order rows with 123 or ABC or 3 other labels. The number 1 rows are set 2 meters apart. Basically you can keep repeating the rows 1-3-2-3-1-3-2 ……. until wanted or until space is ended. These are only examples, most plants can be fit into 2 categories, like beetroot can grow in a middle term 2 / B row or a quick term, 3 / C row.
‘1 / A‘ rows may require a ‘pre-seeding’ crop before the time the main crop goes in, as they usually go in about May;
Late cabbage ,
In between two ‘1 / A‘ rows, are the B rows. These rows can be for plants which grow either in the first half or in the second half of the growing year. Examples are;
Each of these rows will yield at least 2 full crops.
Between the 1 / A rows and the 2 / B rows, at a distance of 50cm are 3 / C rows; plants for 3 / C rows are:
onion sets/bulbs raised from seed ,
These ‘3 / C’ rows are set with short-lived plants with small, low growth. They grow for a short time only and then make way for other, similar plants. They like the light shade of neighbouring plants. We often consume these the most and there is a concession (repeating) of crops, often 3 per year.
These rows provide the household with a variety of regular, nutritious food. After early varieties of 1 species, there can follow a late version of another species (For example spring carrots may be followed by a type of late lettuce or other salad crop). These 3 / C rows will produce 2 and often 3 crops, 1 after the other.
Some crops can go in different rows, like carrot fits into 2 / B rows and 3 / C rows, cauliflower can go in 1 / A rows or 2 / B rows.
There are many-sided, beneficial and well-balanced effects in companion and mixed planting which is visible to the naked eye, but not in that part alone; further advantages arise from the encouragement given to the micro-organisms in the soil and problems to do with the rotation of crops are also irrelevant.
Choosing What To Grow And What Not To Grow
Choosing what will be grown should be based on what will be eaten (do not be distracted in trying to grow lots of different things for the sake of it), do not take too much on – if someone is offering free plants only take them if you need them, have the space and are willing and able to care for them. If the space allows, have an area set aside for experimenting with new techniques/combinations and for plants that the I is not familiar with. Incorporate plants into your proper vegetable garden when comfortable and confident in growing them. Initially begin by thinking of what is required /consumed the most.
It is important that these incompatible combinations are avoided whenever possible;
Beans and Onions,
Cabbages and Onions,
Red cabbages and Tomatoes,
Parsley and Cabbage lettuce,
Beetroots and Tomatoes,
Potatoes and Onions.
Try your own combinations out, as long as they are not the above it will probably work well. Plants grow with other plants in ‘communities’. The soil type, local climate, light and water availability are what chooses the plants that can grow in an area. Vegetables grow very well when planted in ‘communities’ and being interplanted with other plants. Also they are protecting each other, vibrating and helping each other through residues and smells (above and below ground) which we cannot always perceive with our senses.
Examples Of Plants That Make Good Combinations and Neighbours
Kannah-Besem/All Beans and Peas
Kannah Besem/Most types of Grasses
Celery/All types of Greens, Especially when mixed in rows
Take advantage of such an easy method of pest control. These easy methods are not only cost free, but are non-polluting. What goes on at root level, undetected by us, is important in the reciprocal effect of each plant on it’s neighbours. Combined with things like liquid feeds / sprays, companion planting makes growing plants much easier.
Labelling the Rows
In the example given it shows the order of Long season crop – Short Season Crop – Medium Season Crop – Short Season Crop – Long Season Crop and so on. This basic pattern can be repeated for as long as needed.
Ideally, the row width should be about 500mm / 50cm, but slightly less will do.
The order of the rows can be slightly changed. For example it would be possible to grow to 2 cabbage rows, if they were split by a row of celeriac in the middle and had another row of celeriac on each edge.
Mark Out Rows
On the inside of the fence, allow a path, to walk all the way around.
Mark out crop rows every 500 millimetres. 400 millimetres is the minimum before it becomes awkward to inspect each row. Above 600 millimetres most plants are not benefiting each other, because they are too far away to feel their effect.
In between each crop row is a live-cover row. This live cover row can be sown with spinach or mustard in early spring. Once the crop row is around hand height, chop down the spinach / mustard and leave as a cover. It does not have to be sown, instead it can be lightly covered with live-cover, because too much and the baby seedlings may be interfered with.
The whole garden is gradually overgrown and so the initial requirement of cultivation is fullfilled. The spinach row soon becomes a live-covering path).
From this point on, the ground needs to never be bare agian (even in winters), and then soil can always host green life.
Mustard and field beans can be sown as soon as the soil is tilled. Onion, carrot and marigold need slightly warmer weather, and lettuce and radish won’t germinate until spring. Seeds, especially seed already frozen, can be sown in colder temperatures and left in the ground, so that they will germinate when conditions are right – use extra seeds if sowing in cold temperatures.
Example 1st Stage
Cut down cover crops on the pea row around February and sow pea + celery seeds. Lettuce and radish would be sown in March, if not done previous. The Kannah-Besem row and bean + kohlrabi row can be sown after March. Some carrots will be ready, especially small thinnings – which is when the really close growing plants are picked out to make room for others to get bigger.
Here are some baby carrots that want thinning;
Thin them so that the remaining carrots have plenty of room around them to grow bigger.
Fill in any holes with soil. To repel any carrot fly that may be attracted to the fresh smell of the disturbed carrots, pinch off a tip of an onion / leek / chive etc leaf, tear it up and sprinkle around the carrot row that has been thinned. Carrot fly is repelled by onion smell, and so will not go near the row.
The marigolds should be removed to make way for the carrots, and the dill can picked/harvested as is wanted. Some small lettuce and radish may be thinned / harvested. Begin to fully cover soil between rows where seedlings are around hand height or taller because If seedlings are smaller, sometimes the covering will damage them if blown around by wind or disturbed by birds etc. Give plants a liquid feed, use pure or near pure for Kannah-Besem and Peas. Mix it with plenty of water for things like carrots and lettuce which require much less feed. For the Kannah-Besem a nettle feed would be suitable, whereas the peas would benefit from some woodland fern added in. Keep soil in-between rows topped up with appropriate cover.
Example Stage 2
If a large variety of Kannah-Besem is being grown, it will likely overgrow the row on either side. They will not be re-sown after harvest (in this example carrots, they will be harvested but the row will not be re-sown). Other plants that grow large enough tio overtake it’s neighbour rows include cucumbers, squash, peas, potatoes etc.
At some point in summer the onions can be harvested and the row should be re-sown. In this example chicory is to follow the onions. The lettuce and radish row will likely fully finish, and be re-sown. Carrots will follow in this example. Peas should now be well into flowering and some peas may be harvested. Also, If any auto-flower Kannneh-Besem has been sown early, they may now be harvested. For the Kannah –Besem it would be ideal to begin to switch to a feed which would encourage flowering. To do this, instead of basing it on nettle, it should constituted of a plant or plants like marigold, valerian, woodland fern, dandelion etc. Keeping with a nettle feed can allow the plants to become over-leafy and also miss flowering time by a whole moon, although nettle could still be included in mixture. Some Kohlrabi may be harvested. When the Kannah-Besem begins to flower, remove males (unless seed is wanted).
Example Stage 3
The Kannah-Besem will be reaggy for harvest sometime soon, sometimes individual plants will vary by a few days to a few months depending on the seeds used.. All rows except the chicory will be harvested and re-sown with a suitable cover crop.
In cold climates that have cold winters there can be a few rows of vegetables, like; leeks, onions, kale, brussels, broad beans, parsley, parsnips etc. The rest of the rows should be occupied by cover crops like mustard, field beans, phacelia etc.
Harvest the crops as they are reggy, and re-sow with mustard, unless temperatures are colder than -7. If temperatures are lower than -7, then cover the rows with leaves etc.
In cold climates the last few rows are left in reggy-ness for the winter. They can no longer be inter-sown with green manuring crops, since these would not be able to survive, not even quick germinating mustard. These last rows will be of; celeriac, late cabbage, beetroots, carrots, leeks, brussel sprouts etc. The soil in these rows has all-reggy been prepared for the spring sowing, when the fork lifts them at harvesting and a prodding to introduce air is done. The rows are now neatly and evenly covered with the leaves which have been twisted off and discarded; thus each row has its own leafy cover.
At the beginning of the winter there are several green rows of variously advanced mustard, there are rows hidden under leaves and there are rows of plants growing on for winter (leeks, kale, brussel sprouts, field and or broad beans, parsley etc).
By spring, the surface mulch (sheet compost) will have rotted down unless the winter has been very snowy with a blaket of snow from November to February. The frozen green mustard forms a light protective veil over the ground and even the vegetable rows are covered with their own leaves to give a well frozen cover of rotted matter. As far as the garden as a whole is concerned, all that is necessary is to rake over the surface. A small but use-full quantity of material for the compost heap is provided by the rakings.
The paths in the middle of each row can be ventilated with the garden fork. In this way, the otherwise heavy and difficult labour is not needed, the ground will be prepared for the coming year and crop rotation will cease to be a headache.
From this point on, any seeds sown will be sown in the path, half way between where the original rows were. For example if in September onwards, some field beans are to be planted to supply nitrogen for a heavy feeding crop next year, they will be planted in between 2 rows of the current year. The year after the rows will be in the original positions again, but not necessarily with the same crops in.
Overlap – Next Season
When cover crops are removed, sow the seedlings of the new season, where last year’s cover/path was – halfway between the rows (250 mm along), and have the mustard and live-cover paths where last years crops were.